Recognizing the benefits of learning through experience, attention to students’ experiences of learning outside the traditional classroom is increasing.
Similarly, at the provincial level, in Ontario the Premier’s Expert Panel on the Highly Skilled Workforce recommended that “every student has at least one experiential learning opportunity by the time they graduate from post-secondary education” (2016, Pg. 27).
In advancing experiential learning opportunities across higher education, considerations of access and accessibility must be an important priority (BHER, 2016; Expert Panel on Youth Employment, 2016).
A number of barriers can keep students from engaging in learning outside the traditional setting. Recognizing and understanding these barriers is the first step to supporting inclusive access for all students.
THIS RESOURCE INCLUDES INFORMATION ON:
- Student groups with low participation rates in experiential education.
- Barriers to students’ engagement in learning outside the classroom.
- Strategies for enhancing participation.
- Future questions to be considered in supporting students’ access to learning through experience.
Nationally, the business/higher education roundtable proposed that “100% of canadian postsecondary students benefit from some form of work-integrated learning prior to graduation(BHER, 2016, PG. 9)
Barriers for Underrepresented Students
Participation rates in experiential learning are currently unevenly distributed, with notable under-representation of international students, first generation students, Indigenous students, students who self-identity as a member of a minority group, students with a disability, as well as students with a lower grade point average (GPA).
Research on the specific barriers and facilitators experienced by the various underrepresented populations is required and will be critical to supporting equitable access to experiential learning. Some of the population-specific barriers reported to-date are noted below:
Experiences lacking flexibility and not underpinned by principles of inclusivity exacerbate disadvantage. Accordingly, the necessity to consider the needs of marginalized students has been identified as a key challenge in advancing experiential learning for all students (Dunn et al., 2016; Peach et al., 2015).
More research is required to advance our understanding of the specific barriers faced by specific student groups along with the identification of empirically-informed strategies for enhancing participation.
General Barriers & Facilitators to Participation
Future Considerations for Supporting Student Access
- Who is and who is not participating?
- What unique barriers and facilitators may exist for marginalized students (e.g., racialized, gendered, LGBTQ2+)?
Unconscious bias in the student selection process
- How many unconscious beliefs about various social and identity groups influence students access and experience?
Availability of positions
- Existence (or non-existence) of experiences, and limited positions for students in programs/fields, such as the Humanities.
(R. A. Malatest & Associates Ltd., 2018)
- Student participation rates in experiential learning are currently unevenly distributed.
- Barriers to students’ engagement in learning outside the classroom include student awareness and preparedness, preparation, and challenges with finances, time and accessibility.
- Facilitation strategies include one-on-one advising, preparatory sessions, graduates sharing their experiences, and the provision of flexible and diverse types of experience.
- Future considerations for supporting student access include consideration of the unique barriers faced by marginalized students, unconscious bias and the availability of positions.
References and Acknowledgements
Business/Higher Education Roundtable (BHER) (2016). Taking the Pulse of Work-integrated Learning in Canada. Retrieved from http://bher.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/BHER-Academica-report-full.pdf.
Cooper, L., Orrell, J., & Bowden, M. (2010). Work Integrated Learning – A guide to effective practice (1st ed.). Routledge; Taylor & Francis e-Library.
Dunn, L., A., Schier, M. A., Hiller, J. E., Harding, I. A. (2016). Eligibility requirements for work-integrated learning programs: Exploring the implications of using grade point averages for student participation. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(3), 295-308.
Expert Panel on Youth Employment (2016). Understanding the Realities: Youth Employment in Canada. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/corporate/youth-expert-panel.html.
Gair, S., Miles, D., Savage, D., & Zuchowski, I. (2015). Racism Unmasked: The Experiences of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students in Social Work Field Placements. Australian Social Work, 68(1), 32–48.
Jackson, D., Rowbottom, D., Ferns, S., & McLaren, D. (2017). Employer understanding of Work-Integrated Learning and the challenges of engaging in work placement opportunities. Studies in Continuing Education, 39(1), 35–51.
Peach, D., Moore, D., Campbell, M., Winchester-Seeto, T., Ferns, S., Mackaway, J., & Groundwater, L.
A. Malatest & Associates Ltd. (2018). Barriers to Work-integrated Learning Opportunities. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.heqco.ca/en-ca/Research/ResPub/Pages/Barriers-to-Work-integrated-Learning-Opportunities-.aspx.
Severance, T. A., & Starr, P. J. (2011). Beyond the classroom: internships and students with special needs. Teaching Sociology, 39(2), 200-207.
Tran, L. T., & Soejatminah, S. (2017). Integration of Work Experience and Learning for International Students: From Harmony to Inequality. Journal of Studies in International Education, 21(3), 261–277.
Wall, T., Tran, L. T., & Soejatminah, S. (2017). Inequalities and Agencies in Workplace Learning Experiences: International Student Perspectives. Vocations and Learning, 10(2), 141–156.
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A Powerpoint version of the content provided in each resource section is available for individuals wishing to use this material for local professional development programming.
The resource is licensed for re-use under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License” using the following citation:
Stirling, A. (2019). Access and Accessibility. Presented at the Experiential Learning Hub. Retrieved from https://experientiallearning.utoronto.ca/faculty-staff/plan-and-implement/course-and-program-development-resources/access-accessibility/